Inside This Issue:
- Center Announces 2015 Research Projects
- Chairman's Message
- Rural Snapshot: Top Farm Commodity Groups of Pennsylvania Counties
- Born Leaders: Birth Counties of Pennsylvania's Governors
- Did You Know . . . January is Farm Show Time
- Just the Facts: Home Heating Sources
Center Announces 2015 Research ProjectsFaculty from the State System of Higher Education universities and regional campuses of the University of Pittsburgh will kick off their respective studies this month as part of the Center for Rural Pennsylvania’s 2015 Research Grant Program.
In December 2014, the Center’s Board of Directors approved seven research projects for the 2015 program. The projects focus on a variety of topics including secondary school career guidance services, domestic violence services, and Act 13 spending by municipalities and counties.
Senator Gene Yaw, the Center’s board chairman, says the research projects will offer the General Assembly, school districts, local governments, and community organizations information that can support policy and programming decisions.
“In collaboration with our university faculty partners, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania will investigate issues relevant to Pennsylvania,” Sen. Yaw said. “The findings from this research, along with the results from past research and the Center’s rich database, will continue to provide policy and decision makers with information on matters that affect rural Pennsylvania and its nearly 3.5 million rural residents.”
Following is a summary of the 2015 research projects.
A Comparison of Rural and Urban Secondary School Career Guidance Services
Dr. Cheryl Neale-McFall of West Chester University of Pennsylvania will assess and compare rural and urban school career guidance services related to post-secondary career planning in grades 7 to 12 throughout Pennsylvania.
The research will include an analysis of resources available to districts and school counselors, and will include a special focus on science, technology, engineering, and math course selection.
Exploring Health Care Alliances in Rural Pennsylvania
Dr. Chad M. Kimmel of Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania will examine the formation of health care alliances in rural Pennsylvania, their effect on rural community health care capacity, and, the potential of these alliances to better meet the needs of rural communities, while remaining aware and respectful of traditional methods of health care provision valued by the residents of these communities.
Domestic Violence Cases in Rural Pennsylvania Magisterial Courts: Practices, Effectiveness and Consequences for the Victims
Dr. Gabriela Wasileski of Indiana University of Pennsylvania will investigate the practices of Magisterial Court judges regarding domestic violence in rural Pennsylvania.
The research will examine domestic violence cases and barriers that judges face in processing such cases and adequately responding to victims. The research will develop possible suggestions for victims’ services and the criminal justice system.
Analysis of Domestic Violence Services in Rural Pennsylvania
Dr. Gayatri Devi of Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania will analyze domestic violence services. Dr. Devi and a team of researchers will examine the challenges faced by both domestic violence service providers and their clients in rural areas.
The team will use both quantitative and qualitative analyses of existing secondary data on shelter/client/region-community characteristics and statistics, and primary data from surveys, interviews and focus groups with domestic violence shelters and appropriate partners, to clarify the needs and challenges affecting the funding, staffing, advocacy, outreach, and other victim assistance services for rural Pennsylvania domestic violence service providers and their clients.
Analysis of Act 13 Spending by Municipalities and Counties in Pennsylvania
Dr. Shailendra N. Gajanan of the University of Pittsburgh at Bradford will examine Act 13 disbursements and existing data to determine spending patterns and procedures among municipalities and counties.
The project will track the impact of Act 13 funds on county and municipal budgets based on historical trends and allocation patterns.
Analysis of 2012 Census of Agriculture Data
Dr. Sunita Mondal of Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania will use Census of Agriculture data to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of farmers and farm operations in Pennsylvania.
The research will examine farmers’ characteristics based on demographics, farm ownership and farming practices, and identify and analyze changes in farming operations, farm profitability, and labor.
Economic Outlook for Rural Pennsylvania over the Next 10 Years
Todd Behr of East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania will analyze available databases from state and federal sources to identify key economic and demographic trends in income, employment, industry growth and more in rural and urban Pennsylvania counties.
Mr. Behr and his team of researchers will extrapolate the future direction of the economy over the coming years.
Gearing Up for the 2016 Program
As this year’s grantees begin their projects, the board is identifying topics for the 2016 Research Grant Program. The grant topics will address relevant issues impacting Pennsylvania’s rural residents.
After the topics have been identified, the Center will issue its Request for Proposals (RFP).
The Center’s research program is only available to faculty at the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education universities, Pennsylvania State University, and the regional campuses of the University of Pittsburgh. However, the Center encourages cooperation and collaboration between these faculty and other public or private organizations.
As we welcome in the New Year, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania is kicking off its annual cycle of research projects. Over the years, the Center’s research has reflected the diversity and complexity of rural Pennsylvania and the changing needs of and opportunities for its residents, which today total nearly 3.5 million. We have the nation’s third largest rural population and a rural landscape that encompasses about 75 percent of our state’s land mass, so it’s important to keep issues that affect our rural communities in the forefront of discussions and decisions that are made at the local, state and national level.
The Center’s research program has brought important information to policy makers in state government, provided practical tools and information leading to better decision-making at the local level, and raised awareness about rural Pennsylvania at the national level.
In 2014, the Center published research on a host of topics, including population projections, rural prisoner reentry challenges, the financial needs of students pursuing post-secondary education, the enrollment trends and financial impacts of charter schools, municipal pensions, cancer incidence and mortality rates, and Marcellus Shale.
This year, our research will focus on a variety of other issues, which are highlighted on Pages 1 and 3. As always, we’re pleased to be working with our university partners to explore these issues, and know that their work will yield important information.
This month, the Center’s Board of Directors will also be identifying potential research topics for the Center’s 2016 grant cycle. Topics are developed through each board member’s working knowledge of rural Pennsylvania, prior research findings, and ideas from state and federal agencies, state and local organizations, academia, and any number of other sources that know rural Pennsylvania. The board will review these potential topics at its first board meeting, and announce the topics through the Request for Proposals, which is typically issued in March.
As the year progresses, we will continue sharing the results of our research and information from our database which is the largest rural database statewide with you.
On behalf of the board and staff, I wish you all the best in the New Year.
Senator Gene Yaw
Rural Snapshot: Top Farm Commodity Groups of Pennsylvania Counties
The dollar amounts shown in the map below represent each county's total value of sales of agricultural products in 2012. Below the dollar amounts are each county's top commodity group according to the highest value of sales in that county. Counties shaded in green are rural and those in white are urban.
$7,400,781,000 = Total value of sales for Pennsylvania, 2012.
Top Farm Commodity Groups of Pennsylvania Counties, 2012 - (Download PDF)
Note: “Data Not Available” was applied to counties where 50 percent or more of the commodity values are withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual farms. Data source: 2012 Census of Agriculture. USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service.
The top five commodity groups for Pennsylvania are:
- milk ($1.96 billion);
- poultry and eggs ($1.36 billion);
- grains, oilseeds, dry beans and dry peas ($1.21 billion);
- nursery greenhouse, floriculture, and sod ($0.94 billion); and
- cattle and calves ($0.72 billion).
The commodity groups are:
- grains, oilseeds, dry beans, and dry peas (labeled grains on map);
- nursery, greenhouse, floriculture, and sod (labeled nursery and greenhouse on map);
- other crops and hay;
- fruits, tree nuts, and berries;
- vegetables, melons, potatoes, and sweet potatoes;
- cut Christmas trees and short-rotation woody crops;
- cotton and cottonseed;
- poultry and eggs;
- cattle and calves;
- milk from cows (labeled milk on map);
- hogs and pigs;
- sheep, goats, wool, mohair, and milk;
- horses, ponies, mules, burros, and donkeys;
- aquaculture; and
- other animals and other animal products.
Born Leaders: Birth Counties of Pennsylvania's Governors
Here’s a look at the birth counties of Pennsylvania’s governors. Since 1790, Pennsylvania has had 47 governors and all but seven were born in the commonwealth.
Pennsylvania Governors’ Birth Counties, 1790 to 2015
Data source: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Did You Know . . . January is Farm Show Time
- This year, the Pennsylvania Farm Show, which has been held since 1917, celebrates its 99th season.
- The Pennsylvania Farm Show is the largest indoor agricultural event in America, housing 24 acres under its roof.
- The Pennsylvania Farm Show showcases approximately 6,000 animals, 10,000 competitive exhibits and 300 commercial exhibits each year.
- The average Pennsylvania dairy farm milks 80 cows that produce 80 pounds of milk each day. It would take one farm about 19 days to produce enough milk to supply the approximately 14,000 gallons of milk required to make the milkshakes sold at the Pennsylvania Farm Show.
- In addition to the milk needed for those delicious milkshakes, other ingredients needed to make the tasty treats at the Pennsylvania Farm Show Food Court for visitors include 17,500 pounds of donut mix, 6,000 pounds of shortening, 480 pounds of prime rib, 975 pounds of chip steak, 10,000 pounds of pulled pork, 6,000 pounds of bacon, 90 bushels of apples, 450 gallons of maple syrup, two tons of honey, and 600 gallons of honey ice cream.
Source: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture.
Just the Facts: Home Heating Sources
Americans use a variety of sources to heat their homes.
According to data from the 2012 American Community Survey, gas, electricity, and oil were the heating sources used most often.
Nationwide, about 56 million homes, or 49 percent of all homes, used gas, 43 million homes, or 37 percent, used electric, and more than 6 million homes, or 6 percent, used oil. The remaining 8 percent used other heating sources, such as solar energy, wood, and coal.
Among the nearly 5 million homes in Pennsylvania, 51 percent used gas, 21 percent used electricity, another 19 percent used oil, and the remaining 9 percent used other heating sources.
According to the 2012 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), nearly 38 percent of homes in rural Pennsylvania and nearly 58 percent of homes in urban Pennsylvania used gas heat; 21 percent of homes in rural and 21 percent of homes in urban Pennsylvania used electric heat; nearly 25 percent of homes in rural and nearly 16 percent of homes in urban Pennsylvania used oil heat; and 16 percent of homes in rural and 5 percent of homes in urban Pennsylvania used other sources of heat.
According to the PUMS data, median household incomes varied by the types of home heating sources used. For example, the median household income for homes that used gas heat in urban Pennsylvania was $52,500 and in rural Pennsylvania was $47,500. The median household income for homes that used electric heat was $47,400 in urban Pennsylvania and about $44,000 in rural Pennsylvania. The median household income for homes with oil heat was $55,600 in urban Pennsylvania and $45,400 in rural Pennsylvania.
Home values also varied by the types of home heating used. Homes with gas heat had median property values of $160,000 in urban and $119,000 in rural Pennsylvania. Homes with electric heat had median property values of $200,000 in urban and $150,000 in rural Pennsylvania, and homes with oil heat had median property values of $190,000 in urban and $110,000 in rural Pennsylvania.